: Differend: Phrases in Dispute (Theory and History of Literature) ( ): Jean-Francois Lyotard: Books. This original study examines Jean-François Lyotard’s philosophical concept of the differend and details its unexplored implications for literature. it provides a. Expressing the Inexpressible: Lyotard and the Differend Jacob M. Held Marquette University Department of Philosophy Coughlin Hall P.O. Box

Author: Gakora Dolrajas
Country: Pacific Islands
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Automotive
Published (Last): 2 September 2018
Pages: 157
PDF File Size: 20.65 Mb
ePub File Size: 3.80 Mb
ISBN: 271-3-54092-481-8
Downloads: 3205
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Jut

Lyotwrd Report on Knowledge, trans. In order for Lyotard’s philosophy to be both informative and effective he must abandon his conception of there being no ultimate court of appeal in cases of violence and the proposed solutions.

In order to characterise phrases as events which are beyond full understanding and accurate representation, Lyotard undermines the common view that the meanings of phrases can be determined by what they refer to the referent. Discourse and figure, however, are not opposed but are co-implicated: This is quite similar to what Deleuze and Guattari discuss in terms of organisms and and the body without organs in Anti-Oedipus two years earlier, and both texts are often read as encouraging these flows of energy, that is, the creation of the highest intensities, over forms of organization that tamp down these events.

The Subject and the Inhuman Like many other prominent French thinkers of his generation such diffeernd Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida and Gilles DeleuzeLyotard develops critiques of the subject and of humanism.

To solve the problem of the victim one seem s to have to locate a way in which the differend can be expressed and linked ont o the existing discourse. The differend arises on this level of genres when the phrase event gives rise to different genres, but one genre claims validity over the others.

While Freud largely discussed the libido at the individual level as a form of energy circulating within the body and necessitating societal laws that led to the formation of an internal superego keeping these energies in check, Lyotard greatly extends the idea of the libido to lyogard of political economy as really a libidinal economy.

The nature of discourse precludes the communication of this injustice. A differend occurs when a discourse does not allow the linkages which would enable the presentation of a wrong.

Lyotard’s interpretation of capitalism in the libidinal economy sees two possibilities inherent in capitalism, each entwined and inextricable. Lyotard introduces a distinction between opposition and difference to account for the differing ways in which the discursive and the figural function.


As he reports in an autobiographical essay that opens Peregrinations: Imagine that subsequent to the origin al wrong a phrase is found that appears to express the original situation in the genre of discourse within which it was previously inexpressible.

After his arrival, Lyotard immersed himself in the works of Marx while updating himself on the Algerian situation. He surmises that a nationalist, democratic revolution will only lead to new forms of social inequality and domination, and insists that a socialist revolution is necessary. Enhanced bibliography for this entry at PhilPaperswith links to its database.

Justice demands, however, that wrongs be presented – we must at least try to “present the unpresentable. Lyotard’s libidinal politics is not aimed at overthrowing capitalism, then, but of working within it to release the libidinal energies dissimulated within its structures.

The Postmodern Explained to Children, ed. State University of New York Press, Politics Lyotard’s early political commitments were to revolutionary socialism and a lyohard orthodox Differenf see Biography and Early Works b Algeria.

Jean-François Lyotard (1924—1998)

This, for Lyotard, is at the heart of all creation, which comes with the misery that the painter faces with a plastic surface, of the musician with the acoustic surface, the misery the thinker faces with a desert of thought, and so on. This computerization of knowledge has not just sped up how knowledge is transferred, but what we think knowledge is, especially as the sciences are put almost wholly in service of supplying patents and know-how for corporations.

Linking phrases, he says, is necessary but contingent in how it is done Differend To better see why the above-mentioned problems are so detrimental to Lyotar d’s project consider the following.

The first part introduces phenomenology through the work of Edmund Husserl, and the second part evaluates phenomenology’s relation to the human sciences particularly psychology, sociology, and history. Phrases can be commands, questio ns, descriptions, etc. These new linkages difffrend allow a greater variety of concepts to be communicated.

Metaphysically, Lyotard is a materialist, and for him affects must be understood as concrete material difgerend.

Le Différend – Jean-François Lyotard – Google Books

So what about simply bearing witness to the diffe rend? No one doubts that language is capable of admitting these new phrase families or new genres of discourse. From his early work on phenomenology through Discourse, FigureLibidinal Economyand The Postmodern ConditionLyotard argued that events occur always in the face of what is not presentable to a phenomenology, discourse, language game, or phrase regimen.

This narrative has usually taken the form of a heroic epic of some kind, with the scientist as a “hero of knowledge” who discovers scientific truths.


Expressing the Inexpressible: Lyotard and the Differend | Jacob Held –

It would appear as though the very nature of language, life or existence is such that violence is a necessary diffrrend of simply navigating throughout the wo rld. Lyotard develops a complex set of figures to describe how this process takes place. In particular, lyktard is interested in the bearing this problem has on the question of whether phenomenology can think history politically, thus potentially contributing to Marxism.

In Constantine Lyotard read Marx and became acquainted with the Algerian political situation, which he believed was ripe for socialist revolution. His aim is to show that structuralism ignores the figural elements at work both outside and within representational structures. In the fifteen years between his first two books of philosophy, Lyotard devoted all his writing efforts to the cause of revolutionary politics.

The case is a differend because the harm done to the victims differedn be presented in the standard of judgment upheld differrnd Faurisson. Scientific knowledge is legitimated by certain scientific criteria – differebd repeatability of experiments, etc.

Lyotard does not advocate a simple liberation of desire and does not attempt to set up a place beyond representation which would be immune to the effects of nihilism.

On his view, the postmodern is that which exists within the modern itself. If it were possible to express a wrong the wrong would becom e a damage.

This division of knowledge is caught within a type of oppositional thinking that Lyotard believes is out of step with postmodern modes of knowledge. This means that there is no utopian society free from exploitation, either pre-capitalist or post-revolutionary. The term “paganism” refers to a way of thinking that takes into account and strives to do justice to incommensurable differences. Lyotard uses the metaphors of flatness and depth to refer to discourse and figure, respectively.

He was frequently in a position to observe cultural changes that would leave lingering marks on society and his thought.

The Differend

Even silence is a phrase. Therefore, language makes the expression of these facts of oppression impos sible. Phrases in Dispute, Lyotard equivocates between two possible solutions to the differend. Many of these facts are facts of oppress ion.