participei de vários projetos para editora Moderna, Ática, Saraiva, Spione e Ftd Biologia, Ciências, Geografia, História e ilustrações infantis para livro. Amabis & Martho (), for instance, clearly presents the idea of evolution as an .. AMABIS, J. M.; MARTHO, G. R. Fundamentos de Biologia Moderna (2nd ed.). P. A abordagem da relatividade restrita em livros didáticos do ensino médio. AMABIS, J.M.; MARTHO, G.R. Fundamentos da Biologia Moderna. livro/58ra/JNIC/RESUMOS/resumo_html>.
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Remember me on this computer. Nevertheless, when assuming such an approach, we should not underestimate the risks of losing from sight the need for an understanding not only of the molecular and cellular components of living systems, but also of the organizational principles by means of which the very systems which we classify as living can emerge from those components. Such a view about diseases overlooks the focal level sensu Salthe where pathological processes themselves usually take place, involving not only cells and molecules, but, above all, tissues, organs, and organic systems.
An understanding of the organizational patterns observed in living beings indicates how it is important in science and biology teaching to deal with the central, structuring Gagliardi concepts in biological thought, in contrast with the encyclopedic tendency of curricula El- Hani, in press[b]. Three books characterized living beings by means of a general description of taxonomic groups that highlighted the attributes of each group Figure 2.
The nature of life, in: Help Center Find new research papers in: Los conceptos estruturales en el aprendizaje por investigacion. This distinction becomes difficult, however, when we consider equivocal cases such as viruses, viroids, prions, or a biochemical soup of RNA fragments in a laboratory.
Due to a mistake in the post-translational modification of this protein, a non-functional version is produced, the prion protein. From the 8 books analyzed, 5 presented a definition of life. Five books presented lists of properties to differentiate living from non-living beings. Autopoietic systems, replicators, and the search for a meaningful biologic definition of life.
The Ontogeny of Information 2nd Ed. When the properties listed are interconnected in the context of some paradigm, the list is no longer, as in the case of essentialist definitions, something like a medical syndrome, a collection of symptoms with no underlying cause. As living beings, we have a deep conviction that, in principle, we do know what is life and no remarkable difficulty should appear when we try to distinguish between a living being and something inanimate, or between the living and the dead states of organisms.
Thus, when studying, we should be aware of the fact that the statements, generally speaking, refer to what is more frequent, to what happens in the majority of the cases or individuals. The Great Chain of Being. Biologia Molecular, Citologia e Histologia.
Mmartho concluding that, in favorable conditions, amoebae never die, he raises the question: To put it differently, when a definition of life is embedded in a biological paradigm, it is possible to find underlying causes to what previously seemed to be merely a syndrome Bedau Does the textbook discuss the problem of defining life?
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It conflates the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathological process with the pathological phenomenon itself. We did not find, however, any book that addressed the circular, self-referential organization of living systems by employing the conceptual resources of this theory.
The definition of life proposed is limited to a list of properties, seeking to characterize what a living being essentially is and what a non-living being essentially is essentialist view. On some theoretical-grounds for an organism-centered biology: Thus, the characterization of viruses and other structures as borderline cases may be a reflection more of the inadequacy of our defining procedures than of the nature of what we are trying to define. The Philosophy of Artificial Life.
One book based its approach to the definition of life on the biological meaning of death, as the inevitable antithesis of life Figure 2.
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It is desirable, then, to address this problem in a non-essentialist manner, inasmuch as this is compatible with population thinking. Therefore, it should be regarded as a positive aspect that the biology textbooks we examined here, albeit recognizing the difficulties involved in defining life, do not avoid the discussion about how one can characterize living beings, differentiating them from inanimate matter. What is the Books present a definition of life? We emphasized how the search for similar features in biological processes and common patterns in the diversity of living beings, which is an inevitable part of any attempt to define life, makes a more integrated approach to biological knowledge possible.
This view is reminiscent of one of the most influential ideas in Western thought, that of a scala naturae or Great Chain of Beings Lovejoywhich persists in the views about the evolutionary process emphasizing progress and perfectability.
Essentialist list of properties, allegedly including sufficient and necessary conditions for a system to be living.
The idea that a discussion of life concepts might contribute to biology teaching incited livdo to pursue new research questions: Textbooks that based its approach to the definition of life on the biological meaning of death. Their Structure and Representation.
The Role of the Genome in Development and Evolution. It comes to mind the issue of how to study with the expected lucidity a set of phenomena and to build theories capable of biologla them in the absence of a more or less clear characterization of what are the very phenomena at stake. Fundamentos de Biologia Moderna 2nd ed.
It is clear that the biochemical nature of living beings is quite particular to each species or individual.
Biology and Philosophy 7: The analysis of the textbooks was performed by applying a standard protocol, in order to guarantee a standardized appraisal of how the textbooks dealt with the problem of defining life and life concepts Figure 1.
All the instructions to the functioning of the cell would be written, in code, in the DNA molecules.
Life would appear when an aggregate of molecules, endowed with the ability to perform ordered chemical reactions, extracting from the environment raw materials and energy, managed to maintain its organization and isolate itself from the environment.
Some authors explicitly state the difficulty of defining life: The gene that codifies the prion protein is in the host itself, so that the prion lacks genetic material and, in fact, cannot do amais of itself in the same sense as typical living beings fundamentis.
The problem lies in the disproportionate emphasis on the micro-structure of biological systems, usually in an approach tending to isolate molecular and cellular structures from the organismic and environmental contexts.
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What is the definition of life presented by the textbook, if there is any? The textbooks call attention to the alleged borderline instances between living systems and inanimate matter, in particular, to viruses, understood as exceptions.
Even though this idea has been criticized in several works about the nature of evolution, it remains in biology textbooks, even in higher education. This approach can be verified in the fragmentary way the textbooks deal with the levels of complexity, making it difficult to understand, for instance, that the relations of living beings to each other and to their environment depend on their internal organization.
Surely, it may exist, and maybe even necessarily exists, borderline instances between living beings and non-living matter. Does the textbook somehow discuss some characterization of living beings? Viruses and other molecular structures showing distinctive properties of both inanimate matter and living beings seem to be exceptional because they contradict our intuitions about the distinction between these two classes of entities.