Teorija CPP: cestnoprometni predpisi: C, E, D – kat.: (za interno uporabo). Front Cover. Bojan Krajnc. B. Krajnc, – 89 pages. Index of /~slmurko/Teorija in vaje/ROM/Interaktivni raèunalniški teèaji/computing/ cpp. [ICO], Name · Last modified · Size · Description. [DIR], Parent Directory, -. Parent Directory, -. [TXT], BARCHART.C, Feb , K. [TXT], , Feb , K. [ ], , Feb , K.

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One could say that the defined operations specify the data to be used.

The advantage is, that now the compiler takes care of calling initialization and termination procedures as appropriate. We can illustrate this as shown in Fig.

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Now you might say, that you can create list objects. Therefore it would be nice to declare a new list with something like:. It is now divided into several smaller parts fpp interact through procedure calls and which form the tsorija program Fig. Thus, it is exactly the other way around: For example, this ensures that the list is correctly deleted, returning resources to the program. This enables you to change the implementationfor example to use a faster but more memory consuming algorithm for storing elements without the need to change other modules of your program: Teoriia are declared within a particular scope for example within a procedure.

However, this implies more overhead and does not prevent you from knowing what you are doing. Each object is responsible to initialize and destroy itself correctly. The list example implies operations to traverse through the list.

You therefore create a new interface description which now includes a definition for a list handle. Traversing can be done using the following loop:. Consequently, in cases of errors you can narrow your search to those places which are not proven to be correct. Beginning with the teoruja chapters additional features of object-orientation are introduced which makes object-oriented programming to a new programming technique.


Consequently, you have to use a special type ANY which allows to assign data of any type to it. The corresponding list routines should then automatically return the correct data types.

Now you have a list module which allows you to use a list with any type of data elements. As you believe that lists are a common data structure, you decide to implement it in a separate module. Interface definitions just describe what is available and not how it is made available. Object-oriented programming solves some of the problems just mentioned. Consider the multiple lists example again.

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Programs use data structures to store data. Now a program can be viewed as a sequence of procedure calls. However, there is only one state per module and each module exists at most once in the whole program. Instead of calling a procedure which we must provide with the correct list handle, we would directly send a message to the list object in question. You hide the information of the implementation in the implementation file.

Therefore we would like to be able to define a list similar to the definition of an integer.

After the sequence is processed, flow of control proceeds right tworija the position where the call was made Fig. This has lead to the idea to extract these sequencesname them and offering a technique to call and return from these procedures.



Suppose you want to program a list in a modular programming language such as C or Modula Now we have a single program which is divided into small pieces called procedures. If you want to use a list within a procedure, say, foo you use the following code frame:.

Each of these data structures can be characterized by their structure and their access methods. Objects of the program interact by sending messages to each other. Every other procedure now contains the special parameter this which just identifies the list in question.

In contrast to the other techniques, we now have a web of interacting objectseach house-keeping its own state Fig. With procedural programming you are able to combine returning sequences of statements into one single place. The overall function of the list is always the same, whether we store apples, numbers, cars or even lists.

Isn’t this just a more fancier modular programming technique? Structure of a singly linked list.

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But what, if you teorijaa more than one list in one of your programs? This is necessary since you wish to use your list in several different environments, hence, the type of the data elements to be stored in the list is not c;p beforehand. We use a simple example to illustrate the particular properties and to point out their main ideas and problems. Some compilers even initialize newly created integers to a specific value, typically 0 zero.