of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (ASTM Practice. D ). MPMS Chapter Determination of Water in Crude Oil by the Distillation Method (ASTM Test. ASTM D Standard Test Method for WATER IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTS AND BITUMINOUS MATERIALS BY DISTILLATION. ASTM D Standard Test Method for Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation.
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Chemistry and Principles Karl Fischer titration proceeds according to a reaction with a two-step mechanism in which sulfur dioxide initially reacts with an alcohol ROH to form an ester intermediate which is neutralized, or buffered, by an appropriate organic base RN.
In two-component KF, the titrant contains only an aatm solution of iodine, while the solvent contains the other ingredients needed for the reaction. Astm D95 Water Content Distillation. The following aastm represent this two-step mechanism. However, neither of these methods can detect dissolved water or reproducibly detect trace levels of emulsified water.
Preferred connections are ground joints for glass and O-rings for metal to glass. Dislodge any drops of water adhering adtm the sides of the trap with a glass or polytetra?
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Coulometric KF is most d59 in the range of 1 ppm to 5 percent water. If a metal still with a removable cover is used, insert a gasket of heavy paper, moistened with solvent, between the still body and the cover.
Key Components of a Modern Volumetric KF Titrator Coulometric KF In coulometric KF, the iodine needed by the KF reaction is not present in the KF reagent, but is instead generated electrochemically in situ from iodide at the anode of the generator electrode, a component of the coulometric titration cell Figure 2. Some of the modes by which water exists in lubricating oils can lead to catastrophic equipment failure.
Standard test method for water in petroleum products and bituminous materials by distillation.
Read the volume of the water in the trap to the nearest scale division. Once all the water has reacted with the iodine, trace quantities of free iodine appear in the titration cell, causing a drop in voltage necessary to keep the polarization current constant, which in turn signals the end-point of the titration.
High water content of lubricating oils negatively impacts the operation and longevity of the oils and the mechanical equipment components being lubricated. Last previous edition approved in as D95— Thereafter, each major subdivision that is, 2. For those oil samples which fail to adequately dissolve even when using KF reagents formulated with organic co-solvents, or those that are awtm of containing interfering compounds, an indirect KF analysis using asrm oil evaporator is recommended, as described below.
Additionally, water has been known to cause certain oil additives to precipitate out, as well as to chemically attack some additives.
A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Volumetric KF is most axtm in the range of ppm to percent water. These include corrosion, erosion, etching and hydrogen embrittlement. Corresponding reduction of hydride to hydrogen takes place at the cathode.
This instrument adopts double-unit structure.
Reactivity Certain compounds in the oil will undergo asfm side reactions either with methanol or iodine components of KF reagents. Some products have stock, contact us anytime to get more information.
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ASTM D95 distillation method portable transformer oil moisture analyzer. The end-point determination in KF titration occurs by means of d955 indication.
Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at phonefaxor service astm.
Only representative samples obtained as speci? Bangkok pursuant to License Agreement. Supplier Types Trade Assurance. Percent may be determined by mass or by volume.
In cases of material with a low-water content when large samples must be used, a solvent-carrier liquid volume in excess of mL may be necessary.
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Methods of test for petroleum and its products. However, due to solubility and reactivity issues described above, analysts often drastically reduce sample size, which tends to reduce the reproducibility of test results.
The values in parentheses are for information only. Summary of Test Method 4.